Butuanon map
  • AKA: Lapaknon
  • Location: NE Mindanao: marshland estuary of Agusan River.
  • Languages: Closely related to Cebuano
  • Subsistence: Rice, coconuts, fishing.
  • Population: 24,566 (1990)

The Butuanon are thought to be related to the Manobo peoples in the Agusan Valley; however their language is mutually comprehensible with that of the distant Tausug and the Kamayo of Bislig, and their culture is much like that of the Cebuano. It has been suggested that the Tausug moved to the Sulu Archipelago from the general area of Butuan during the 11th century during a period of heavy trade between Agusan and the Chinese; this is supported by the rich archaeological record of the area. Butuanon contacts with the eastern coast of Mindanao may have produced the Kamayo.

The Butuanon are now highly urbanized, and practice logging as well as cash agriculture.