Mamanwa map
  • AKA: Conking, Mamaw, Amamanusa, Manmanua, Mamaua
  • Location: Mindanao, Agusan del Norte province; Leyte.
  • Subsistence: Swidden agriculture in small patches; some wet rice. Heavy reliance on food gathering.
  • Population: 1922 (1990)

The Mamanwa were once considered a Negrito group, but now are thought to comprise an older group entirely distinct from other Filipino populations. Like all Negritos, they have adopted the language of a dominant nearby group. They are concentrated primarily in Kitcharao and Santiago; however, they are quite mobile, and continually relocate. As hunting has declined in importance, the bow and arrow have largely fallen into disuse. The Mamanwa receive some of their subsistence from other groups with whom they have labor arrangements. Settlements consist of three to twenty households arranged in a circle in a high ridge or valley. The houses generally lack walls. Communities are kin-based, with leadership vested in the oldest and most respected male.